The end of the First World War and the revolutionary upheaval of 1918/19 also meant the end of the military sovereignty of the German states. In the interest of the unity of a future German army, Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Wuerttemberg and Baden relinquished their military reservation rights in favour of the German Reich (empire).

What does a volcanic eruption in Indonesia have to do with the invention of the dandy-horse, why were pedal crank bicycles first known as "bone shakers", and what is the connection between cycling and emancipation? We tackle these and other questions in our new DDBspotlight on bicycles.

In this series we present collections which can be found in the Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek (German Digital Library), and in this way give an insight into the diverse objects of our partner institutions. We begin with the Josef Fenneker Collection of the Deutsche Kinemathek.

In April 1920, the Communist Workers’ Party of Germany (KAPD) was founded, a party to the left of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). For a short while, two communist parties existed in Germany, which struggled for the leading role within the labour movement. The primary objective of the KAPD’s political activities was “to develop the self-awareness” of the proletariat.

On the occasion of Labour Day, this Spotlight is addressing the issue of that which daily surrounded workers at the end of the 19th century: industrial architecture. We are devoting ourselves more specifically to one individual aspect of this architecture: clay brick.

The Jewish educator and politician Kurt Hahn lived from 1886 to 1974. Two world wars, experiences in exile, the founding of schools, social changes and political involvement lie between these two dates. As a general rule, Kurt Hahn is associated with an educational movement which is designated as progressive education (in German: Reformpädagogik). The progresssive educational ideas of this time

This Spotlight is devoted to women and their clothing. We shall examine striving for emancipation as self-determination through fashion, as a struggle to be able to move around freely and to appropriate the male article of clothing par excellence – trousers.

The Filmarchiv (Film Archive) of the DFF - Deutsches Filminstitut & Filmmuseum (German Film Institute and Film Museum) in Frankfurt/Main preserves approximately 20,000 cinematographic works, but also amateur and experimental films. A collection of amateur videos by the inventor and film pioneer Julius Neubronner from 1900 to 1918 is now also available in the German Digital Library.

During his time as priest of the small country parish of Thurndorf in the Upper Palatine district of Neustadt a.d. Waldnaab, Johann Barnickel (1870-1952) had an unusual hobby: he was interested in aeronautical science.

Cinemas have been closed since the beginning of November, cinema operators are worried that they will not be able to open again after the lockdown due to financial reasons; there is even talk of the death of the cinema. The longer film theatres remain closed, the clearer it becomes, however, that the home viewing experience is different from that in